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Journées Inaugurales du Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CRNL)
c17-How to induce neuroplastic alterations non-invasively (3917) - Mercredi 26 septembre 2012 13:30 - 14:00

c17-How to induce neuroplastic alterations non-invasively

Transcranial electric stimulation techniques have been developed as cheap and efficient tools for modifying cortical plasticity. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) allows increasing or decreasing the excitability of corticospinal or cortico-cortical pathways depending on the intensity and frequency of ultrashort stimulation pulses. Here magnetic stimulation is the vehicle which allows transferring transcranially short-pulsed electric energy without inducing skin pain. Direct transcranial electric stimulation of the human brain can be used painlessly if less steep voltage gradients are involved. Weak transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with a homogenous DC field fulfills this requirement ideally (Nitsche and Paulus, 2000). TDCS induces plastic aftereffects via membrane polarization: cathodal stimulation hyperpolarizes, while anodal stimulation depolarizes the resting membrane potential, whereby the induced after-effects depend on polarity, duration and intensity of the stimulation. Transcranial alternating current (tACS) (Antal et al, 2008) and random noise stimulation (tRNS) intend to interfere with ongoing cortical oscillations (Terney et al., 2008). Using these techniques, we can induce and modify differently neuroplastic changes with different advantages and disadvantages of tDCS, tACS and tRNS. Plastic aftereffects need a minimal stimulation duration time and may reverse with too long stimulation. Whereas in the normal stimulation duration range of about 10 minutes tDCS allows for excitability increase and decrease, tACS and tRNS induce only excitability increases in particular with higher frequencies between 100 and 600 Hz. The latter induce less skin sensation than tDCS and accordingly can be blinded better. They are also less current direction sensitive. These effects are strongly modified by neuropharmacological co-application: L-DOPA leads to a focusing effect in analogy to its otherwise found U-shaped dose dependency. Dopamine agonists may reverse anodal excitatory tDCS into inhibition, SSRI provide the opposite effect. In conclusion continuous transcranial electrical stimulation techniques allow for targeted modulation of cortical plasticity

Walter PAULUS, Go?ttingen, Germany

Sciences du Vivant Communication

Toutes les vidéos de l'évenement Journées Inaugurales du Centre de Recherche en Neurosciences de Lyon (CRNL) (20 videos)

00:28:00.03

2012-09-25

10:45 - 11:45 : Ouverture du colloque

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11:45 - 12:15 : Brain against brain: presentation of a new brain computer interfa...

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14:30 - 15:00 : C2-Multiple level interactions between neurodegeneration and neur...

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15:00 - 15:20 : C3-Serotonin receptors and neurodegenerative processes. A Focus o...

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15:20 - 15:40 : c4-VEGF in neuronal development and synaptic plasticity

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15:40 - 16:00 : C5-Mutations in U4atac small nuclear RNA: from splicing to brain ...

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16:30 - 17:00 : c6-Homeostatic regulation of neural activity across the sleep- wa...

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17:00 - 17:30 : c7-The neural correlates of conscious awareness revealed by the s...

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17:30 - 17:50 : c8-Cognition markers in altered states of consciousness

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17:50 - 18:10 : C9-The multiple faces of wakefulness, histaminergic and orexinerg...

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18:10 - 18:30 : c10-Mechanisms responsible for Paradoxical (REM) sleep genesis: w...

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2012-09-26

09:30 - 10:00 : c12-How temporal expectations change perception

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10:20 - 10:40 : c14-High-frequency neural activity and human cognition: insights ...

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10:40 - 11:00 : c15-Neuroimagery of olfactory perception and memory in humans

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11:00 - 11:20 : c16-Language, music, complex sounds: What to expect?-And when

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2012-09-26

13:30 - 14:00 : c17-How to induce neuroplastic alterations non-invasively

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2012-09-26

14:00 - 14:30 : c18-Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) in paralysis and psychologica...

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14:50 - 15:10 : c20-Pain relief with transcranial magnetic stimulation: what are ...

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2012-09-26

15:10 - 15:25 : c21-Brain plasticity sustained by environmental enrichment: hopes...

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2012-09-26

15:25 - 15:30 : Clôture

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